Mid 2nd – mid 1st c. BC
During the Hasmonian period the Lower aqueduct is constructed together with one or more of the Solomon pools.
During the time of the reign of Herod the Great (37 – 4 BC) several waterworks are dated:
– The 5km long el-Biyar aqueduct feeding the Solomon’s pools.
– The Upper distribution aqueduct (re-built in the Late Roman period).