• Remains of houses and tombs stone have been found dating back to the Neolithic Age (4000 BC) in the Helwan District of Egypt (Raas El Houf and El Maasara areas).

  • 2700 - 2600 BC

    During the Old kingdom period when the pyramids when built, the Sadd-el-Kafara dam was constructed in a valley, probably to control floods. Having lasted 10-15 years to construct the dam was destroyed by a flood before its completion, and abandoned for thousands of years.

  • 1885 AD

    The dam was discovered by the German archaeologist G. Schweinfurth. It is considered the oldest large scale dam in the world.

  • 2000s

    Today to a large extend the dam is not appreciated as an important archaeological site.

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