Credits / Resources

This case study has been compiled in 2012-13 with the supprt of the Alter Aqua project of GWP-Med.

The authoring team

The present case study has been coordinated by SBE Malta (Sustainable Built Environment Malta) in collaboration with NTM (Nature Trust Malta). The SBE Malta team includes in particular experts on water galleries, civil engineering and materials, management strategies.

SBE Malta is a voluntary organisation in Malta, engaged in the promotion of the principles of sustainable development in the built environment. It was set up by Academics at the University of Malta and professionals active in the Energy efficiency, resource and waste management, renewable energy and sustainable development.

The contributing experts team is set up as follows:

  • Project Coordinator: Ruben Paul Borg, President of Council of SBE Malta (Malta Project Coordinator:
  • Historical Consultant: Keith Buhagiar, Member of SBE Malta (Archaeologist and Researcher on Water Galleries)
  • Project Support: Collaboration of SBE Malta Council Members and ordinary Members of the Organisation


  • Zammit Maempel J, 1977, An Outline of Maltese Geology, Malta.
  • Pedley M, Hughes Clarke M, Galea P., 2002, Limestone isles in a Crystal Sea, The Geology of the Maltese Islands, PEG, Malta.
  • Buhagiar K., 2012 ‘Caves in Context: the late medieval Maltese scenario’, in Caves in Context: the Cultural Significance of Caves and Rockshelters in Europe, edited by Knut Andreas Bergsvik and Robin Skeates, Oxbow Books, UK, 153 – 165.
  • Buhagiar K., 2012 Environmental Education: Malta and Beyond, edited by George A. Said-Zammit, Miller Publishing, Malta.
  • Buhagiar K., 2008 ‘Water Management in Medieval and Early Modern Malta’, in the Hybleans in Malta, edited by Anthony Bonanno and Pietro Militello, Palermo, 259-267.
  • Buhagiar K., 2008 ‘Baħrija – Its Archaeological Significance’, Melita Historica, Vol. XIV no. 4, (2007), 357-374.
  • Buhagiar K., 2008‘Comino: historical and archaeological observations’, in Malta Archaeological Review, Issue 7, (2004 – 2005), 8 – 14.
  • Buhagiar K., 2007 ‘Water Management Strategies and the Cave-Dwelling Phenomenon in Late-medieval Malta’, in Medieval Archaeology, vol. 51, 103 – 131.
  • Buhagiar K., 2003 ‘L-Għar ta’ Baldu Water Gallery’, in The Sunday Times, 16th November, 44 – 45.
  • Buhagiar K., 2003 ‘The Cave-Dwellers of Għar il-Kbir’, in The Sunday Times, 6th April, 44 – 45.
  • Buhagiar K., 2001 ‘The Latnija Troglodytic Settlement’, in The Oracle – The Journal of the Group Arkeoloġiku Malti, Issue 2, 3 – 9.
  • Buhagiar K., 2000 ‘The Roman Bath at the Ta’ Baldu Tenement’, in Treasures of Malta, Vol. VI no. 2, 47 – 51.
  • Buhagiar K., ‘Sustainable Development’, 64 – 68; ‘What is Biodiversity’, 102 – 111; and ‘Our Towns and Villages’, 122 – 133.  The following sections were co-authored with Mr Eman Vella: ‘Rocks and their Formation’, 20 – 27; ‘The Ecosystem’, 52 – 59; ‘The Importance of Water’, 82 – 87.

Web Sources

Malta/Gozo Cistern Exploration Project:


A few words about the Alter Aqua Programme

The Non Conventional Water Resources (NCWR) Programme in Malta, also known as Alter Aqua, is a multi-stakeholder programme bringing together the Global Water Partnership Mediterranean (GWP-Med), the Ministry for Gozo (MGOZ) and the EcoGozo Project, and  the Coca-Cola System in Malta (Coca-Cola Malta and General Soft Drinks Co. Ltd). Alter Aqua involves the installation and reinstatement of non conventional water resources (NCWR) systems (mainly rainwater harvesting and greywater) in selected public buildings and areas, with special focus in schools.

Activities also include educational hands-on interventions in schools, teacher training seminars, capacity-building workshops for local authorities and trainings for local technicians, as well as awareness raising on NCWR and sustainable water use. Educational activities are implemented by Nature Trust Malta and Eko Skola, in collaboration with the MIO-ECSDE. The Program is primarily funded through a  grant from the Coca-Cola Foundation.  |