Credits / Resources

This case study was compiled in 2012-13 with a grant of the Anna Lindh Foundation (ALF).

The team of Makhzoumi Foundation visited the Spring of Saint John Maroun twice, the first time was to meet the inhabitants of Ghouma and learn about it through a field visit.

The second visit was with Dr. Musa Nimah – Prof. of soil and irrigation at the American University of Beirut – he checked the spring and explained about the water phenomenon whereby a water sample was taken for testing.


General Editor: Sallama Namani, Makhzoumi Foundation (

Text: Renee Aoun & Arlette Saadeh, Makhzoumi Foundation

Text editing: Iro Alampei, MIO-ECSDE



·         تاريخ الموارنة ومسيحيي الشرق عبر العصور، الجزء الأول، تأليف عبد الله أبي عبد الله، دار ملفات، السنة 1997.

·         جبيل والبترون والشمال في التاريخ، تأليف عبدالله ابراهيم أبي عبدالله، 330 صفحة، دار سمير أبو صالح، السنة 1987.


·         “غوما” البترونية محطة تاريخية على طريق الحرير وطريق إهراءات روما، تحقيق، جريدة الأنوار 12 تشرين الأول 2003 – العدد 15210، تحقيق غسان عازار، صفحة 18.


A few words on the Makhzoumi Foundation

Makhzoumi Foundation was established on February 7th 1997 with the aim of contributing through its programs to the enhancement of the quality of life of the different communities and hence to the development of the Lebanese civil society. Its programs are: Training Centers, Micro Credit, Health Care, Awareness and Agriculture/Environment, providing, till date, more than 250,000 services.

The Foundation works towards: Evolution of the Lebanese Civil Society; Enhancement of the Potentials of Lebanese human resources; Enforcement of Self-responsibility & independence; Emphasizing the importance of Environmental Preservation; Encouraging the quest of Education; and Encompassing good Health Care.