The hydraulic system of the pond is comprised of canals having a simple slope to make these channels collect rainwater to supply the pond. It was constructed by the Romans to collect, store and use rainwater most probably around 63-64 BC.
The pond is carved in limestone rock formed millions of years ago by the rain water. The rock consists of calcium carbonate CaCO3 that resides a lot because of the natural, climatic and geological conditions of Jordan.
The pond has an elliptical shape with approximate dimensions 100m length, 60m width and 8m depth. The limestone used has been collected from the surrounding area that is rich in carbonate rocks. The filling material used in the pond walls to prevent leakages, particularly gypsum, has been collected from neighbouring locations.
The area surrounding the pond is generally flat, lacking natural depressions or cavities, therefore it is believed that great efforts have been put for the digging to reach 8m depth. The pond used to be filled with water during rainy seasons either directly from precipitation or via the two wadis that are connected to the pond leading the water downstream.
In summer time, the pond dries up and by that time people get the chance to clean up the bottom surface from the sediments and gravels so that the pond maintains the appropriate depth for water storage. Archaeological studies showed that the pond was left uncovered in the past. The pond has continued to be in use as a source of water up until 30-40 years ago for various purposes and particularly irrigation.