• Beginning of 2nd Millennium BC

    Larnaca city is established, originally named Alasia (= place of salt) as the main port of Cyprus to facilitate trade (mainly export of copper, wood & salt. Extensive stone protected wells are found scattered in the early settlements of Larnaca.

  • 1350 - 900 BC

    The Mycenaean Greeks control the city, that is now named Kition (= Grail = Kivotos), and they construct cyclopean walls around it.

  • 900 – 700 BC

    The Phoenicians from Tyre also settle in the area. New methods of storing water are introduced, namely underground argil sealed cisterns to satisfy the needs of the increasing population.

  • 700 – 300 BC

    The Assyrians for half a century (709-665 BC) and then the Persians for more than 3 centuries (546-333 BC) rule the city. During the Persian rule of Cyprus, the technology of Persian Qanats is imported to the city. An inscription on a tomb found in the Kition cemetery of the archaic period (700-480 BC), makes reference to the king’s “Minister of water supply” a title held within the same family for six generations. We may therefore assume that organised and official administration for the water needs of the town can be traced back to before the 8th c. BC.

  • 480 - 323 BC

    An underground distribution system of the classical period is in place, bringing sufficient quantities of water from reliable sites outside the city walls. (The end part of this underground system is discovered at the site of the ancient port by a French Archaeological mission in the early 1990s).

  • 45 AD

    Saint Barnabas and Mark the Evangelist pass by Kition. In the “Acts of Saint Barnabas” written by Evangelist Mark, a detailed account of their visit to Larnaca is included and a one hour stay at the public aqueduct of Kition for a rest is clearly mentioned.

  • 1362 AD

    The Chronicle of Leontios Machairas mentions the existence of grain mills in Larnaca. It is assumed that they worked with the help of the hydraulic power of the ancient underground aqueduct of the city, which was repaired and in operation.

  • 1746 - 1748 AD

    Cyprus Ottoman governor Abu Imbrahim or Bekir Pasha constructed an aqueduct for Larnaca with two water mills along its underground section. This installation was based to a large extent on the pre-existing aqueducts of the city which were extensively repaired.

  • 1950s

    The operation of the ancient aqueducts and grain mills of Larnaca comes to a final end.

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